TECHNOLOGY

Facebook wants to make cryptocurrency mainstream. Here’s how

Jun 18, 2019, 12:35 PM
cryptocurrency mark zuckerberg facebook...
At its F8 developers conference last month, cofounder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg said he wants to make sending money as easy as sending a photo: digital, immediate, free and secure. Photo: Chris Ratcliffe/Bloomberg/Getty

(CNN) — For the last year, Facebook has been signaling it wants in on the cryptocurrency phenomenon. At its F8 developers conference last month, cofounder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg said he wants to make sending money as easy as sending a photo: digital, immediate, free and secure.

On Tuesday, the company formally unveiled its highly-anticipated digital currency project. It’s called Libra. Facebook also announced the creation of the Libra Association, an independent organization that will manage the currency, and Calibra, a unit of Facebook that will build applications related to the new digital currency.

Facebook has 2.4 billion users around the world, an audience that could help it spur a bigger mainstream adoption of cryptocurrency than others have yet to generate. At the same time, the announcement comes at a critical moment in Facebook’s history. The company is under regulatory and political scrutiny for its massive influence, as well as its mishandling of user data, even as it works to further extend its reach into users’ lives.

As part of the announcement, Facebook launched a test version of its blockchain, the technology upon which cryptocurrencies like bitcoin are built. It is open-source software, meaning developers can experiment with building applications on the platform and submit feedback on the code. The currency itself is set to launch in 2020.

“Libra’s mission is to be a simple, global currency and financial infrastructure that empowers billions of people,” said Facebook’s David Marcus, who runs Calibra and headed up the Libra project. One of the aims of the project is to help the 1.7 billion people around the world who don’t have bank accounts access a stable currency and financial services.

Over the past year, Facebook put together a team of executives and outside partners to work on Libra. Last May, Marcus, formerly president of PayPal, stepped down from his role as head of Facebook Messenger to build a blockchain team within the company.

In recent months, the company established the Libra Association, a not-for-profit governing body that will oversee Libra. Facebook says it did not want to be solely in charge of Libra because it intends for the cryptocurrency to be a “public good.”

The group has 28 founding members — companies and nonprofits from several different countries — including Facebook, which says it will have just one equal vote. The association will be based in Geneva and officially take up its post this week overseeing the rollout of Libra. Facebook hopes to have 100 association members by the 2020 launch.

Among the founding members are heavy hitters in the tech, finance and nonprofit sectors, including Mastercard, Uber, Mercy Corps and Andreesen Horowitz. These partners bring expertise in areas key to the project: international financial regulations, blockchain and the financial needs of poor communities around the world.

How Libra will work

Users will be able to access Libra in a number of ways, not just through Facebook.

Facebook’s new subsidiary Calibra will build a “wallet” application for people to use Libra, send it to their friends and make purchases on Facebook and Instagram. A button on Whatsapp and Messenger will allow users to send Libra in their message threads, the same way they send GIFs or emojis. Calibra will also operate as a standalone app.

Other companies will be able to build similar applications. For example, a bank could build an application allowing users to take out a loan in Libra, or a retail company could plug into the network so users can make payments in the digital currency.

But Libra will still face a hurdle to get widely adopted.

To get Libra, users will need to transfer the money through their bank or go to a local money exchange to trade local currency for it. And for a user to spend the money their friend sent over Messenger without first depositing it back into their bank account will require, say, their favorite clothing store to accept Libra as payment, too. Though Facebook’s large user base will give the cryptocurrency broad exposure initially, the effort’s success will depend on consumers being able to do more than just use Libra on Facebook’s platforms.

Libra will be backed 1:1 by a bundle of financial assets likely to include bank deposits and short-term government securities from the US Treasury, among others. This will help it avoid the volatility that has plagued other cryptocurrencies like bitcoin.

A coin backed 1:1 is unusual among cryptocurrencies, according to Ari Juels, a professor at the Jacobs Institute at Cornell Tech who studies cryptocurrency. Digital currencies are not often backed this way because that would tie up billions of dollars in reserve currencies that could not be used. Even traditional financial institutions, like US banks, do not fully back deposits this way, hence the need for FDIC deposit insurance.

However, this stability will be essential for the mainstream adoption of Libra, according to Union Square Ventures Partner Fred Wilson. Union Square Ventures has made a number of investments in the cryptocurrency sector in recent years and is a Libra Association founding member.

“People don’t want to transact in a cryptocurrency that’s not price stabilized,” Wilson said. “They don’t want to make payments in a currency that could go way up and they don’t want to earn in something that could go way down.”

Questions about the use of user data and Facebook’s role

In recent months, Facebook has faced criticism from users and politicians over privacy and security issues on its platforms, and reports suggest it could face antitrust scrutiny.

Amid rumors of the company’s cryptocurrency plans, the US Senate banking committee last month wrote a letter to Zuckerberg asking how the company would protect users’ financial data. Facebook said it received the letter and is addressing the senators’ questions.

For its part, Facebook said users’ financial data will be handled solely by Calibra, and not be shared with Facebook or paired with users’ social data.

The company has also been working with financial regulators in the United States and elsewhere. It developed a procedure to verify the identities of people who will use Libra on its platforms, to comply with government rules meant to mitigate cybercrime.

Even though Facebook won’t solely control Libra, some in the industry worry that the project isn’t in the spirit of the larger cryptocurrency sector, which has prized decentralization.

“With regards to international exposure, it’s a positive but that may be where the positives end,” said Richard Dennis, founder of cryptocurrency marketplace Temtum, which offers a digital currency. “With Facebook one of the biggest hoarders of personal data on the planet, there’s a complete contradiction of what cryptocurrencies are meant to be — no one entity should hold the power, the data or most importantly control user funds.”

Ultimately, Facebook is betting on its scale, as well as the customer bases of Libra Association members, to get consumers to buy into the technology.

Union Square Ventures’ Wilson compared the project to when Microsoft installed Internet Explorer on all of its computers with Windows software, pushing mainstream consumers to access the internet, a network that had existed previously but hadn’t yet infiltrated most households.

“Our hope is that Libra will do the same thing for the world of cryptocurrency,” Wilson said. “I think it can be an on-ramp for consumers to this much, much larger world of cryptocurrency that’s out there.”

The-CNN-Wire
™ & © 2019 Cable News Network, Inc., a Time Warner Company. All rights reserved.

Today’s Top Stories

Technology

FILE - A Tesla owner charges his vehicle at a charging station in Topeka, Kan., Monday, April 5, 20...
TOM KRISHER AP Auto Writer

US report: nearly 400 crashes of automated tech vehicles

However, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration cautioned against using the numbers to compare automakers,
15 days ago
Iran digital intrusion...
Curt Gresseth

Don’t get hacked. Protect your online data by being cyber-ready.

A cyber-security says defend yourself against hackers by being cyber-ready.
2 months ago
The gold star on your license will be needed if you want to fly in the next year....
Dan Bammes

Your driver’s license needs this if you want to fly in the next year

The gold star on your driver's license will be needed for anyone 18 and older. Most people have been getting them as they've renewed their licenses over the past four or so years.
2 months ago
FILE - The Twitter splash page is seen on a digital device, Monday, April 25, 2022, in San Diego. E...
KELVIN CHAN AP Business Writer

Musk’s Twitter ambitions to collide with Europe’s tech rules

Europe's Digital Services Act requires big tech companies to police their platforms more strictly or face billions in fines.
2 months ago
secondary water davis weber...
Chandler Holt

WSU achieves water conservation goals four years early

Over 5 years ago, Weber State University set a water conservation goal to reduce campus water usage by 30% by 2025, a goal they achieved in 2021.
2 months ago
FILE - Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk arrives on the red carpet for the Axel Springer media award i...
MICHELLE CHAPMAN AP Business Writer

Tesla CEO Elon Musk offers to buy Twitter for $43 billion

He says the social media platform he has criticized for not living up to free speech principles needs to be transformed as a private company.
3 months ago

Sponsored Articles

Tax Harassment...
Jordan Wilcox

The best strategies for dealing with IRS tax harassment | You have options!

Learn how to deal with IRS tax harassment. This guide will teach you how to stop IRS phone calls and letters, and how to handle an IRS audit.
spend a day at Bear Lake...
Bear Lake Convention and Visitors Bureau

You’ll love spending the day at Bear Lake | How to spend a day at Bear Lake

Bear Lake is a place that needs to be experienced. Spend a day at Bear Lake.
Curb Appeal...
Price's Guaranteed Doors

How to have the best of both worlds for your house | Home security and curb appeal

Protect your home and improve its curb appeal with the latest security solutions like beautiful garage doors and increased security systems.
Prescription opioids can be disposed of during National Prescription Take Back Day...
Know Your Script

Prescription opioid misuse | How to protect your family from the opioid epidemic

Studies have shown that prescription opioid misuse has increased since COVID-19. So what do you need to know about these opioids?
Follow @ikeyospe...

Tax Tuesday: The Most Common Mistakes People Make When Filing Their Taxes

Fortunately, for most average earners, they will not end up owing overpayments received for the Child Tax Credit in 2021.
Follow @ikeyospe...

Tax Tuesday: How will last year’s child tax credits affect you?

Fortunately, for most average earners, they will not end up owing overpayments received for the Child Tax Credit in 2021.
Facebook wants to make cryptocurrency mainstream. Here’s how